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Ing. Salih CAVKIC
orbus editor in chief

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The man of the year

Guy Verhofstadt
Mr. Guy Verhofstadt

The man of the year
L'homme de l'an
De man van het jaar

A proven Democrat, protector and fighter for justice and human rights in the World.

Een bewezen Democraat, beschermer en strijder voor rechtvaardigheid en mensenrechten in de Wereld.

Un prouvé démocrate, protecteur et combattant pour la justice et des droits de l'homme dans le Mond.

Eine bewährte Demokrat, Beschützer und Kämpfer für Gerechtigkeit und Menschenrechte in der Welt.

Dokazani demokrat,
 zaštitnik i borac za pravdu i ljudska prava u Svijetu.

Peace in the World

Mr. Barak Hossein Obama

peace in the world

vrede in de wereld

la paix dans le monde

Garantie des Friedens in der Welt

mieru vo svete

mira u svijetu

Murray Hunter
University Malaysia Perlis

Perpetual Self conflict: Self awareness as a key to our ethical drive, personal mastery, and perception of entrepreneurial opportunities.
Murray Hunter

The Continuum of Psychotic Organisational Typologies
Murray Hunter

There is no such person as an entrepreneur, just a person who acts entrepreneurially
Murray Hunter

Groupthink may still be a hazard to your organization - Murray Hunter

Generational Attitudes and Behaviour - Murray Hunter

The environment as a multi-dimensional system: Taking off your rose coloured glasses - Murray Hunter

Imagination may be more important than knowledge: The eight types of imagination we use - Murray Hunter

Do we have a creative intelligence? - Murray Hunter

Not all opportunities are the same: A look at the four types of entrepreneurial opportunity - Murray Hunter

   The Evolution of Business Strategy - Murray Hunter

How motivation really works - Murray Hunter

Evaluating Entrepreneurial Opportunities: What’s wrong with SWOT? - Murray Hunter

The five types of thinking we use - Murray Hunter

Where do entrepreneurial opportunities come from? - Murray Hunter

  How we create new ideas - Murray Hunter

How emotions influence, how we see the world? - Murray Hunter

People tend to start businesses for the wrong reasons - Murray Hunter

One Man, Multiple Inventions: The lessons and legacies of Thomas Edison - Murray Hunte



There is no such person as an entrepreneur, just a person who acts entrepreneurially

Murray Hunter

University Malaysia Perlis

 Finding common characteristics shared by all entrepreneurs has been an elusive task. Back in the 1960s researchers have tried to link entrepreneurs to psychological traits and characteristics with the hope that questions like ‘ why do some people see opportunity, when others do not?’,’is there any difference between people who are entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs?’, and ‘can a psychological profile be developed for entrepreneurs?’.

Over the years a large number of personality traits have been explored and reported upon. Early work by McClelland in the 1960s postulated that the key to entrepreneurial behavior was the need for achievement as a source of motivation[1]. According to McClelland people with a high need for achievement wanted to take responsibility for their decisions, set goals and accomplish them through their own effort[2]. They also desire some form of regular feedback[3]. High achievers wanted challenging tasks with concrete goals and succeed by their own efforts rather than by chance[4]. Based on the logic of the need for high achievement, people with this need would become entrepreneurs[5]. However the need for achievement is not an exclusive trait for entrepreneurs and it fails to predict entrepreneurial tendencies[6].

1. Research turned their attention to the study of the locus of control. The locus of control generally refers to a person’s perceptions of the outside world and the reasons they believe are the causes of events impacting on their lives. People who believe they can control the environment through their actions have what is called and internal locus of control. Whereas people who believe they have little control of the environment have what is called an external locus of control. Generally it was believed that people with an internal locus of control would gravitate towards being entrepreneurs and people with an external locus of control would be reluctant to become entrepreneurs[7][8]. Rotter hypothesized that people exhibiting an internal locus of control would be more likely to strive for achievement than people with an external locus of control[9]. Although there was much research that supported these ideas, this was not a trait exclusive to entrepreneurs and was found in people of other professions[10].

The propensity to take financial, family or career risks are often attributed to entrepreneurs. Thus it was assumed by researchers that entrepreneurs would take moderate risks in trying to satisfy their need for achievement[11], and propensity to take risks would be higher than managers. Some research studies concluded that the propensity to take risks, among other personality characteristics was important in identifying entrepreneurial types[12]. However many other results have shown to the contrary[13]. Peter Drucker took the point of view that the entrepreneurs don’t take risk, they actually try and minimize risks before acting and the entrepreneur as a risk taker is a myth[14]. Taking this view, entrepreneurs are capable risk managers who defuse risk through their knowledge and confidence of situations that others may view as high risk[15]. Other studies have shown that the amount of risk a person is willing to take is situational upon specific conditions[16], and entrepreneurs don’t take any more risks than managers[17].

Research on specific psychological traits did not identify any typology type profiles of entrepreneurs or any exclusive traits that would lead to the prediction of entrepreneurs. Very few personality traits differentiate the entrepreneur from other people. Nor did trait studies give any insights into the belief systems or behavior patterns of entrepreneurs. Behavior is too complex a phenomenon with too many factors influencing how one perceives the world, feels emotionally and perceives their own self esteem for the trait approach to explain[18]. Any psychological profile would be too theoretical and too general to have any real meaning. For example, under the Myers-Briggs description of ENTP – (extrovert intuitive thinker and perceiver), a person would look for one exciting challenge after another. They would be highly inventive and their enthusiasm would lead to lots of different activities. Their inventiveness is attributable to their rich intuition which would give them a world of endless possibilities, when combined with their objective decision making facilities and directed outwardly converts everything to ideas and schemes. Such a horoscope like description really doesn’t bring much deeper understanding of who is an entrepreneur and why they see opportunity, when others don’t.

If one undertook several case studies of successful entrepreneurs and identified important traits that assisted in their respected successes, these traits would not necessarily be common to all cases. Therefore the study of psychological traits as a means to answer the question of ‘why some people see opportunities and others don’t’, etc, was widened to include other internal and external factors as well as situational circumstances[19]. For example, extroversion would be a much more important trait in a situation where an employee had direct contact with customers than in a position that dealt in paperwork[20].

Each entrepreneur will have a number of positive and negative personality characteristics that will not direct behavior but be ancillary to behavior. Therefore as broad dispositions, these traits cannot be expected to be a very good predictor of individual behavior[21]. A person’s general orientation, situation and personal motives also come to play in influencing behavior[22]. A list of some commonly mentioned traits are shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1. Some Commonly Mentioned Characteristics of Entrepreneurs.

Ability to learn from mistakes Foresight Product knowledge
Able to take calculated risks Goal orientated Profit orientated
Aggressive Honest Quick decision maker
Balanced Imaginative Resourcefulness
Charismatic Independent Responsible
Committed Influential over people Responsive to criticism
Confidence Initiative Responsive to suggestions
Cooperative Integrity Self-reliant
Courageous Intelligent Sense of power
Creativity Leadership Sensitive
Customer orientated Market knowledge Sociable
Determination Maturity Street smart
Diligence Need for achievement Technical knowhow
Dynamism Non-conformist Thorough
Efficacy Optimism Tolerant of ambiguity
Efficient Passion for work Trustful of others
Egotistical Perceptive Trustworthy
Energy Perseverance Versatility
Flexible Positive to challenges Visionary

As can be seen from the list above, the traits themselves are very narrow and cannot on their own or combined predict who the entrepreneur really is and why they can see opportunities. Some traits maybe helpful in opportunity identification and venture creation but may tend to be destructive during growth and maturity stages of a business. For example, the need to control others will be very useful when the early stages of a new business must focus on production and sales. As the company grows and needs new opportunities and strategies to grow centralized control and decision making may stifle creativity and innovation within the firm. Another issue is that behavioral relationships between different traits can be totally unpredictable. For example, a self-centeredness will have influences on the locus of control, need for achievement and propensity to take risks in ways where behavior cannot be predicted, especially where situational aspects are varied between people.

Most traits also have opposites like independent-dependent, thorough-lax, sociable-unsociable, and responsible-irresponsible, etc. Many personality traits like the need for power[23], recklessness, over confidence and unrealistic optimism[24], and sociopathic tendencies[25], can have very counter-productive results on behavior. As mentioned, the need for control can stifle creativity and innovation. A sense of distrust of others can bare many negative consequences on the firm and other individuals[26]. Osbourne postulated that the ownership of an enterprise itself can actually corrupt and change people for the worse[27]. People might not be driven by their traits but by their flaws, as flaws may be motivated as defense systems. For example, behind the need to achieve may be the fear of being found out[28]. People may work hard for success to compensate for failed (or failing) relationships and easily become obsessive.

With the disappointment with the traits approach not being able to predict who would become an entrepreneur, some researchers looked at typologizing entrepreneurs as a way to understand anchor traits, value systems, and thinking for given typologies of entrepreneurs[29]. Typologies can be considered theories that can be modeled according to traits and variables into a synthesized conception of an entrepreneur type[30].

Landau proposed that entrepreneurs could be classified according to their innovative and risk bearing characteristics and proposed four basic typologies[31]. The consolidator is a person who develops a business on a low innovation, risk bearing platform and aims to consolidate and slowly improve, usually bringing low returns. The gambler is characterized by a low degree of innovation and high level of risk where he or she takes big chances in what they do, but is able to deliver through breakthroughs if successful. The dreamer attempts to combine a high level of innovation with a low level of risk. However without risk the dream can never be realized. The entrepreneur takes a high level of risk and innovation and succeeds on the basis of how they are able to manage the risk. Research has also focused on the typologies of the entrepreneur as a craftsman with a blue collar and limited educational background, who prefer technical work and are motivated by the want of personal autonomy, and opportunists who are well educated and motivated by building a successful organization and financial gains[32]. Another typology is an inventor-entrepreneur who has a strong commitment for new product development and rapid market entry with an orientation towards the future[33].

Siu developed five typologies of entrepreneurs in China; the senior citizen, who seeks to work by him or herself, the workaholic, the swinger who jumps from deal to deal, the idealist who tends to think in longer timeframes, and the high flyers[34]. Jones-Evans suggested four technical categorizations of entrepreneurs[35]. The research based technical entrepreneur is in a research environment where his or her ideas have been incubated for a long period of time. He or she is purely a research based entrepreneur without much business experience. The producer technical entrepreneur is an individual who has some exposure to business decision making, probably within manufacturing. The user technical entrepreneur is an individual whose main experience is commercially based with some technical background, and the opportunist entrepreneur is one who has no previous exposure to technology but has seen a commercial opportunity.

Although typologies are not absolutes, as individuals may have characteristics from more than one typology, a good typology fit can be predictive of behavior. The typology approach can be widened to include any number of potential typologies to describe an entrepreneur and the way they seek and exploit opportunities.

The search for opportunity, subsequent strategy development and execution has multidimensional factors influencing it. Without these other multidimensional factors, psychological characteristics will not drive these processes. Opportunity is a socio-psycho phenomenon and from this point of view, the potential factors that influence entrepreneurial behavior[36] are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. The Potential Socio-psycho Factors that Influence Opportunity Discovery and Behavior.

There is no way to explain precisely the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. What factors, situations and emotions determine how people behave is so complex that no diagram or explanation can cover all behavioral contingencies. However for a person to start looking with intention at ideas that can turn into opportunities and be acted upon through a set of strategies requires a trigger situation. A trigger situation can be activated from an external event and/or internal consideration. External events could be shocks that may occur through sudden unemployment, being overlooked for promotion or some other personal tragedy that sets the process off. This may not be a sudden response to the tragedy, as alternative courses of action like looking for another job may precede the setting off of the situational trigger. Other internal triggers may occur when a person may be dissatisfied at work, feel they can do it better or have immense difficulties working under others. This internal ‘cooking’ of desire or frustration may take time and itself require some event in the workplace like being passed up for promotion or having a new ideas ignored to ‘tip the balance’.

When an idea exists and there is a “gap” between the present situation and the potential reality that a new idea could create, there is enough tension to activate a motivational trigger. An idea is needed to set off this situational trigger because without any idea there can be no opportunity alternatives available to the person to think about and act upon.

Acting as a filter through our perception mechanisms is a group of attributes called personal paradigms. Personal paradigms act to pattern or filter information going into the psych where cognitive decision making processes take place. The author believes that it is these personal paradigms, which are particular attributes related to how opportunity is seen, appraised and acted upon, have great influence over our decision making and behavior. They are a buffer between our internal and external world where ‘what we see’, ‘how we feel’, and ‘what we think’, relates back to our personal paradigms. A brief description of some personal paradigms follows below;

     Alertness or entrepreneurial alertness is the ability to be sensitive to information about objects, incidents and patterns in the environment where ideas and potential opportunities can be constructed[37]. To perceive potential opportunities there must be a heightened perceptual and cognitive alertness[38]. Without alertness, any information will not gain any cognitive attention and be forgotten almost immediately. Alertness is a product of our psych and the environment[39].

      Motives push people to perceive, think and act in specific ways that attempt to satisfy needs[40]. Motives often stay unconscious in a person, as the person doesn’t know exactly what they want, yet these motives remain powerful influence behind thoughts, feelings and behaviors[41]. People differ in their types and strength of motives, taking them on different lifetime journeys with different outcomes. For example, Anita Roddick, the founder of The Body Shop may have been personally committed to the environment, education and social change, while Jack Welch and Bill Gates were more motivated by competition and winning, leading to completely different types of organizations and operational philosophies, while all being considered more than successful. Motivation is also situational where for example one can see the higher rates of entrepreneurship among migrant populations in developed countries[42]. Studying motives can assist in answering the question of ‘why people do what they do?”

Motivation is not static. There are two sets of motivational factors. The first set that motivates a person initially usually involves need, responsibilities and obligations that may have arisen from some form of trauma like job retrenchment. A second set of motivators come into influence once a person has established something and involves motivational factors related to the tasks themselves. These higher order motivations have a lot to do with achievement, satisfaction, recognition and fulfillment. Motivational goals often keep moving as one progresses thus maintaining tension and drive in the person. For example, an original motivation may have been to serve a particular geographic area, but as time goes along, ambitions and motivations grow to new and larger areas. When one does meet a goal or objective, then that goal or objective ceases to be a motivator and complacency can set into the person. A list of common motivational factors is listed in Table 2.

Table 2. Some Common Motivational factors[43]

Motivator Description
Achievement A need to master, manipulate, organize and arrange objects, people and events in an accomplished way by overcoming obstacles and excelling.
Exhibition A need to be seen and heard by others and be the centre of attention and make an impression on others.
Order A need to put things in an orderly arrangement, balance and in precision.
Dominance To seek and direct the behavior of others by persuasion, command, coercion or seduction. To seek to control the environment.
Abasement To accept injury, criticism and blame. To submit to the force of others and resign yourself to fate. To admit wrong doing, inferiority and error.
Aggression To overcome any opposition forcibly. To avenge injury and hurt with attack and oppression.
Autonomy To maintain free of others restraints, to break out of confines, to be one’s own master.
Blame-avoidance To avoid blame and humiliation at all costs, to avoid situations that may lead to embarrassment, to refrain from action because of fear of failure.
Affiliation/Intimacy To seek cooperation with others, to draw near and close to others, to win affection of others, to be liked to develop loyalty and receive loyalty from others.
Nurturance To take care of others in need, to give sympathy and gratify the needs of helpless others.
To receive help from other, to have one’s needs gratified by another, to be indulged, nursed, supported and protected by others.

Motivation appears to come from the ego portion of the psych[44]. The ego gives a person a sense of purpose and this is where ‘the urge to make a difference’, ‘to be respected’, ‘to be admired’, ‘to be wealthy’, ‘to be successful’, ‘to control others’ and ‘to be the best originates’. The ego holds emotions of self esteem, the sense of achievement, envy, greed, hate, anger, anxiety, fear, guilt and empathy which are the building blocks of motivators.

      Prior knowledge is information and knowledge a person accumulates over a period of time[45]. Prior knowledge assists a person discover opportunities as it patterns incoming information with familiar knowledge already known. This recognizes the specific value of incoming information in the light of prior information. Shane postulates that a person will tend to discover only opportunities related to their own prior knowledge[46]. Thus people without specific prior information related to incoming information will not see the same opportunities as those that have[47] As everybody’s prior information has its own idiosyncrasies, each person will have their own unique ‘knowledge corridor’ that allows them to see certain types of opportunities but not others[48].

In relation to opportunity, there are three dimensions of prior knowledge; 1. Prior knowledge of markets, 2. Prior knowledge of ways to serve markets, and 3. Prior knowledge of customer problems[49]. This can be further broken down two areas. The first is knowledge of special interests to a person, which can provide them with profound insights into their special interest areas. The second area is knowledge accumulated from their work experience over a number of years[50]. When information from the first area is mixed with information from the second area, new insights may be gained which lead to the discovery of unique opportunities. For example, a salesperson that goes yachting every weekend may discover unique business opportunities related to the leisure sailing industry through the mixing of both phases of his or her prior knowledge.

      The strategic outlook paradigm is concerned about vision, the ability to recognize and evaluate opportunities by turning them into mental scenarios, seeing the benefits, identifying the types and quantities of resources required and weight up all the issues in a strategic manner. A vision helps a person focus upon the types of opportunities suited to their disposition. This sense of vision is guided by their assumptions, beliefs and values within the psych. Vision has varying strengths in different people depending upon their ego characteristics and motivations. The ability to spot and evaluate opportunities is closely linked with a person’s creativity paradigm, their propensity to action and their perceptions of their own talents and available skills. According to Bolton and Thompson entrepreneurs spot particular opportunities and extrapolate potential achievable scenarios within the limits of their skills and ability to gather resources to exploit the opportunity[51]. These extrapolations from opportunity to strategy require both visual/spatial and calculative thinking skills at a strategic rather than detailed level.

Adequate concentration is required in order to have a strategic outlook upon things. This requires focus in strategic thinking, creativity, ego values and interpersonal paradigms. Too little focus will result in random jumping from potential opportunity to opportunity without undertaking any diligent mental evaluations. Too much focus may result in narrow mindedness and even obsessive thinking which would result in either blindness to many potential opportunities or action without truly “objective” evaluation. Table 3. below shows the potential effects of focus on behavior.

Table 3. The Potential Effects of Focus on behavior.

Variable Absent Focus Mean Focus Extreme Focus
Strategic Outlook Switch off, insensitive to environment, blind to opportunity. Able to spot opportunities, work towards exploiting them, able to see required resources and identify potential sources. Look in too much detail so fail to get overview or big picture.
Creativity Unimaginative Able to think both laterally and serially and construct opportunities. Over-imaginative, lose sight of big picture.

Ego Values
Purposelessness not interested. Able to contemplate some form of action with some form of motivators driving ego. Self-delusion, delusions of grandeur.
Interpersonal Individualistic and independent.
Able to communicate and work within social sphere. Hesitant to take responsibility, dependent.
Random scanning of environment, jump from opportunity to opportunity, apathetic. Focused on opportunity possibilities and drawbacks. Orientated towards action. Tunnel vision, fanatical and/or blindness.

The element of creativity expresses itself through other facets and talents. It is a competence that gives a person the ability to make connections between unrelated things, thus creating new ideas, concepts through what can be called an innovation. Creativity is the element that creates opportunity constructs from the fusion of external stimuli and internal information or prior knowledge of the person. Creativity develops innovation which becomes an element behind most opportunities, problem solving, combining resources, generally using talents and skills, and in overcoming barriers and obstacles. Motivation is required to drive creativity and focus maximizes the sensitivity of creativity.

     In Tom Peters and Robert Waterman’s seminal book ‘In Search of Excellence’, they listed ’a bias for action’ as the first of their eight basic principles. ‘A bias for action’ is a preference for doing something rather than getting into the inertia of doing nothing[52]. Many people spot opportunities but for various reasons fail to do anything about them. The propensity for action is about energy, both cognitive and physical to act upon a perceived opportunity. Cognitive energy is required during the mental evaluation stage and physical energy is required to actually put strategies into effect. Without any propensity for action, no other personal paradigm will have any constructive effect.

    Personal talents are natural aptitudes, abilities, skills and intelligence to assist a person pursue their life goals according to their interests, motivations and contexts[53]. Talents according to Cattell are almost fully inherited[54]. Abilities are also aptitudes, skills and intelligence to enable someone to do physical or mental things, but are developed through lifetime learning. Talents and some abilities through learning can be developed into excellence. To utilize and enhance talents and abilities a person must have temperament, attitude, motivation, and interest[55]. Temperament encompasses the ability to manage talent and maintain perseverance. Many talented careers, particularly in sport and the performing arts fail because of the wrong attitudes and temperament. Personal talents and abilities link closely with the personal creativity paradigm and may act as both an anchor and a primer for creative action. Personal talents and abilities may also heighten patterning attention towards stimuli and information close to a person’s span of talent and ability areas.

    The interpersonal paradigm will almost directly influence how large an opportunity a person may consider, dependent on their ability to communicate, collaborate, and work with others. Those with extrovert personalities and leadership qualities are able to bring others onboard and acquire talents and abilities they themselves lack. This means that a person can generally imagine larger potential opportunities because in their assumptions exists the possibility of building large organizations, than would be the case if they were considering or only comfortable working by themselves. How people view others is partly influenced by how they tend to view trust. Those people who tend to be trusting of others will tend to build organizations that may be more open for creativity and innovation than those that are built on assumptions of mistrust of people.

For the purpose of entrepreneurial behavior, the ego drives a person. This is especially so in the creativity, strategic outlook, motivation, alertness and propensity for action paradigms. A very weak ewhere a strong ego would lead to a much stronger sense of self. Without a healthy ego, talents and abilities would be wasted. The ego provides our temperament and influences our basic assumptions, beliefs and values. On our external side, the ego along with the rest of the psych forms< our personality traits. The world sees us through our personality traits and to a certain degree our traits along with our psych are precursors to our behavior[56].

Bolton and Thompson describe the ego as having two parts[57]. The inner part of the ego is concerned about our internal manifestations of self assurance, dedication and motivation. The inner ego produces our interest and passion about things and is the psychic driver of a person. The facets of the outer ego are more behavioral and concern more about a person’s outward qualities. These qualities include a person’s sense of responsibility, accountability and courage. Courage is perhaps the element that makes one feel confident, face reality and stand up to their beliefs and values. The ego tends to be shaped by our self perceptions, experience and unconscious primitive drives and basic morality.

Our perceptions, experience, prior knowledge and psych help shape “who I am” though a continual molding and shaping process. When set off by a trigger, our perceptions, psych, traits and skills combine to form ideas and some behavioral response, “what I do”, which produces certain outcomes. As we produce outcomes, we measure them against our personal goals and go back through our perception system as feedback or ‘how we feel”.

A person reacts to the environment they are within. However it is impossible to predict the behavior that will come from the combination of the personality and environment. Predicting behavior is difficult because all behavior is situational upon the environment. In other words, behavior is both personality and environmentally dependent.

Not only is behavior environmentally influenced, a person with a particular personality leaning will attempt to seek out or create an environment that is suitable to them[58]. For example, an introvert will seek a quiet, unobtrusive environment which is secluded and personal, where an extrovert will prefer a social environment with interpersonal interaction. Personal paradigms are not static, their will shift in their influence and dominance over times and according to life circumstances[59].

Finally, personality can act as a type of memory filter. People tend to remember things that are compatible with their personality traits. Therefore a person with a calm and non-confronting disposition will remember events that promote these attributes, rather than conflicting and divisive situations[60].


[1] McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society, Princeton, D. Van Nostrand.

[2] McClelland, D. C. (1967). The Achieving Society, New York, Free Press.

[3] Begly, T. M. and Boyd, D. P. (1987). A comparison of entrepreneurs and managers of small business firms, Journal of management, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 99-108, Johnson, B. R. (1990). Toward a multidimensional model of entrepreneurship: The case of achievement motivation and the entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 39-48.

[4] Chell, E., Haworth, J. M., and Brearley, S. (1991). The Entrepreneurial personality: concepts, cases, and categories, London, Routledge.

[5] Smith-Hunter, A., Kapp, J. & Yonkers, V. (2003). A psychological model of entrepreneurial behavior, Journal of Academy of Business and Economics, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 180-192.

[6] Sexton, D. L. & Bowman-Upton, N. (1985). The entrepreneur: A capable executive and more, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 1, pp. 129-140.

[7] Chen, C. C., Greene, P., and Crick, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers?, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 13, No. 4., pp. 295-317, Sexton, D. L. & Bowman-Upton, N. (1985), op. cit.

[8] However people with an internal locus of control may believe that fate and luck have a great influence in their lives and take action based on these beliefs. Likewise a person with a strong internal locus of control may undertake strategies that have little or no realistic chances of success due to overwhelming competition and other odds against success. Therefore locus of control cannot necessarily predict behavior and reactions of people.

[9] Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal verses external control of reinforcements, Psychological Monographs, Vol. 80, No. 609.

[10] Hull, D., Bosley, J. and Udell, G. (1980). Renewing The Hunt for the Heffalump: Identifying Potential Entrepreneurs by Personality Characteristics, Journal of Small Business, Vol. 18, No. 1., pp. 11-18, Chen, C. C., Greene, P., and Crick, A. (1998), op. cit., Sexton, D. L. And Bowman-Upton, N. (1985), op. cit.

[11] Bowen, D. D. and Hisrich, R. D. (1986). The female entrepreneur: A career development perspective, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 393-407.

[12] HULL, (1980), G. Udell, and J. Bosley, D.,op. cit.

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[14] < Drucker, P., F., (1984), <op<. <cit.

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[17] SEXTON, I D. (1985), N. Bowman-Upton, And L. op. cit.

[18] There are in fact about 5000 traits that make up a person’s personality. Not more than half a dozen of these traits have been examined about causality with entrepreneurship. Personalities are very complex and most psychological profiling methods measure them simply missing much of the depth of a personality. Thus personalities really cannot be accurately understood through a 5 or 7 point scale, etc, as a personality is made up of thousands of traits or attributes which vary in influence according to time of day, mood and situational occurrences. What even makes personality more difficult to understand is that a person’s ‘self-view’ may be very different to what they portray to the world, i.e., an attention seeker shows grandiosity but may have a very low self-esteem. Our general surface observation of a person can only see what that person wants us to see and what they want to be, rather than whom they are.

[19] Gartner, W. B. (1988). “Who Is an Entrepreneur?” Is the wrong question, American Journal of Small Business, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 11-32, Ardichvili, A., Cardozo, R., and Ray, S. (2003). A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 18, pp. 105-123, Smith-Hunter, A., Kapp, J. & Yonkers, V. (2003), op. cit.

[20] Vinchur, A. J., Schippmann, J. S., Switzer III, F, S., and Roth, P. L. (1998). A meta-analytical view of job performance for salespeople, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 84, No. 4., pp. 586-597.

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[22] Shaver, K. G. and Scott, L. R. (1991). Person, Process, Choice: The psychology of new venture creation, Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 23-45.

[23] Peay, T. R. and Dyer, W. G. Jr. (1989). Power orientations of entrepreneurs and succession planning, Journal of Small Business Planning, January, pp. 47-52.

[24] Kidd, J. B. and Morgan, J. R. (1969). A Predictive information system for management, Operational Research Quarterly, June, pp. 149-170, Laurie, L. and Whittaker, W. (1977). Managerial Myopia: Self-serving biases in organizational planning, Journal of Applied Psychology, April, pp. 194-198.

[25] Solomon, G. T. and Winslow, E, K. (1988). Toward a descriptive profile of an entrepreneur, Journal of Creative Behavior, Vol. 22, No. 1., pp. 162-171.

[26] Kets de Vries, M. (1996). The anatomy of the entrepreneur, Human Relations, Vol. 49, pp. 853-884.

[27] OSBOURNE, I entrepreneur, the of side dark The (1991), M., Long Range Planning, VOL. 26-31. pp. 3, No., 24,

[28] <Kets de Vries, M. (1996), <op. cit.

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[56] HOWEVER and the behavior we is complex. extremely psych traits, our between relationship seen have as

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March, 2012


      One Man, Multiple Inventions: The lessons and legacies of Thomas Edison - Murray Hunter

     People tend to start businesses for the wrong reasons - Murray Hunter

How emotions influence, how we see the world? - Murray Hunter

     How we create new ideas - Murray Hunter

     Where do entrepreneurial opportunities come from? - Murray Hunter

     The five types of thinking we use - Murray Hunter

     Evaluating Entrepreneurial Opportunities: What’s wrong with SWOT? - Murray Hunter

     How motivation really works - Murray Hunter

     The Evolution of Business Strategy - Murray Hunter

Not all opportunities are the same: A look at the four types of entrepreneurial opportunity -
Murray Hunter

     Do we have a creative intelligence? - Murray Hunter

     Imagination may be more important than knowledge: The eight types of imagination we use - Murray Hunter

The environment as a multi-dimensional system: Taking off your rose coloured glasses - Murray Hunter

     Generational Attitudes and Behaviour - Murray Hunter

     Groupthink may still be a hazard to your organization - Murray Hunter

  Perpetual Self conflict: Self awareness as a key to our ethical drive, personal mastery, and perception of entrepreneurial opportunities - Murray Hunter

     The Continuum of Psychotic Organisational Typologies - Murray Hunter

There is no such person as an entrepreneur, just a person who acts entrepreneurially - Murray Hunter

     Go Home, Occupy Movement!!-(The McFB– Was Ist Das?) - prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarevic

     Diplomatie préventive - Aucun siècle Asiatique sans l’institution pan-Asiatique - prof. dr. Anis Bajrektarevic

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Maasmechelen Village

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